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Photo by hotblack on
Photo by hotblack on

Today we will look at:

  • Crop Tool
  • Image Adjustments:
    • Brightness/Contrast
    • Levels (Ctrl+L)
    • Curves (Ctrl+M)
    • Auto Tone (Shift+Ctrl+L)
    • Auto Contrast (Alt+Shift+Ctrl+L)
    • Auto Color (Shift+Ctrl+B
    • Vibrance
    • Hue/Saturation (Ctrl+U)
    • Photo Filter
    • Shadows/Highlights
  • Adjustment Layers
  • Tasks

Crop Tool

Follow the in-class instructions on how to use the Crop Tool or follow the tutorial below the image.

The crop tool works on two basic levels:

  • free-hand – simply select the crop tool (Shortcut C) [Visit Shortcutworld for more Photoshop Shortcutsand drag a window over your image. You can adjust the size of the crop selection by dragging the edges and corners. You can even rotate your crop selection (with CS4 or higher).
    Hit Enter to complete the crop action and accept the new size.
  • key in dimensions – after activating the crop tool enter the width: 500 (in px for web), the height: 600 (in px) and the resolution: 150 (72 is suitable for web)- the values need to be entered in the options bar (also called properties bar). See image below as an example. Next drag the crop window and press enter to except the change.
    Note that the window is restricted in its scale.
See the dimensions of the Crop Tool: 450px x 400px with 72ppi resolution.
See the dimensions of the Crop Tool: 450px x 400px with 72ppi resolution.

Cropping and Straightening Images in Photoshop Essentials

Cropping Tool in Photoshop Essentials


Follow the in-class demonstration. A nice and basic function, it allows you to change the brightness and correct the contrast. Move the slider to change the values.


Tick and untick the Preview box to observe the changes before accepting it.

Use the sliders. It is self explanatory.
Use the sliders. It is self explanatory.


With the Levels function you can adjust problems with tone (eg a photo that is very grey and does not show enough dark and light aspects) or colour related problems (eg too much blue).

The Short Cut: Ctrl+L (Cmd+L) or use: Image>Adjustments>Levels

Overview: follow my in-class introduction to how to use the Levels in simple steps. Use the attached photo by Matthew Bridges of the old house at a lake.

Photo by matthewbridges on
Photo by matthewbridges on

The easiest and most basic way to apply the Levels function is by moving the sliders for the highlight (white) and shadows (black) below the graph of the input levels inwards. Moving the highlight will brighten the image up and moving the shadow will darken the shadows.

This is a good basic function to start of with and it is useful for the majority of your photos, may they be basic shots or more sophisticated and at higher resolution.

Follow this tutorial to learn how to use the Level Adjustment more detailed and how to create an Adjustment Layer:

Fix Tone and Color with Levels in Photoshop – Photoshop Essentials

Improving Image Tone With Levels In Photoshop – Photoshop Essentials


Follow the in-class demonstration (shortcut: Ctrl+M or: Image>Adjustments>Curves). The Curves function is similar to the Level function, but the graph is a lot more visual and intuitive. You can manipulate it with your mouse.  See image:

Try the presets and see how it affects your image, and then manipulate the curve yourself.
Try the presets and see how it affects your image, and then manipulate the curve yourself.

Curves Tutorial on Photoshop Essentials

Auto Tone

The short cut is Shift+Ctrl+L (or: Image>Auto Tone). Follow the in-class demonstration. The Auto Tone function readjusts tonal settings in your image and in most cases this results in a crisper image with the click of a button. The Auto Tone option looks for the darkest and lightest points in an image and resets them to pure white and black, resulting in clearer tones.

Because  Auto Tone adjusts each color channel individually, it may remove color or introduce color casts.

Auto Contrast

Follow the in-class demonstration.

The short cut is Alt+Shift+Ctrl+L  (or: Image>Auto Contrast). Auto Contrast adjusts image contrast automatically, at the click of a button. Unlike Auto Tone it will not affect colours. It clips the shadow and highlight values in an image and then maps the remaining lightest and darkest pixels in the image to pure white and pure black . As a result the image will have lighter highlights anf darker shadows and a crisper contrast.

Auto Color

Follow the in-class demonstration.

The short cut is Shift+Ctrl+B  (or: Image>Auto Color)

Auto Color adjusts the contrast and color of an image. It is able to search images for shadows, midtones, and highlights. It then neutralizes the midtones using a target color of RGB 128 grey and clips the shadow and highlight pixels by 0.5%. Personally, and from experience it effects images less and Auto Contrast and Auto Tone bring more convincing changes in image quality.


Follow the in-class demonstration. Click: Image>Adjustments>Vibrance

As the name suggests this function will help you making a photo look more vibrant. Colours can be shown more intensely with higher saturation. It is easy to grasp this function, simply move the sliders to the right to increase vibrance or move them to the left to decrease vibrance.

Based on a photo by delboysafa from
Based on a photo by delboysafa from


Follow the in-class demonstration.  (Ctrl+U or Image>Adjustments>Hue/Saturation)

Using Hue/Saturation Adjustment Layer with a mask showing the original (yellow) below.
Using Hue/Saturation Adjustment Layer with a mask showing the original (yellow) below.

Photo Filter

Photo Filter
Photo Filter

Follow the in-class demonstration. Press: Image>Adjustments>Photo Filter.

One of the best image adjustment options, you can select from a set of preset filters: use a warming filter to create a lighting sense that you would encounter indoors, in autumn (fall) or during a sunset when there are more yellow, orange and red colours around. Use a cool filter to create a typical outdoor setting or a winter atmosphere. You can tick the Color box and select your own colour or select a colour from the image itself (simply click on the part of the image).

You can also change the amount of density, more density results in a stronger impact of your filter. Find a level that you like – try to be more conservative and chose a little less density than you like for a print).


Follow the in-class demonstration. Click: Image>Adjustments>Shadows/Highlights.

With the shadows and highlights you can easily lighten up an underexposed, dark image. Use the functions sparsely to not overdo the changes, which can easily create an unrealistic look. The image shows the changes on a dark photo.

Based on photo by o0o0xmods0o0o from
Based on photo by o0o0xmods0o0o from

Use an Adjustment Layer

All the image adjustments that we have looked at above can be done directly to an image or in from of an adjustment layer. It is far better to create an adjustment layer, this allows you to create changes in form of a layer. You can always delete or hide the layer and your original image remains unaffected.

How do you create an adjustment layer?

With your original layer selected click on the Create a new fill or adjustment layer button and select what type of adjustment layer you want to create. Next do all the adjustments to it.

Alternatively you just click on the Adjustments tab and select the Adjustment Layer that you want to create.

(See image)

Create an Adjustment Layer
Create an Adjustment Layer

Task in Class

Perform these two tasks to show that you understood today’s class ( If you have missed this class you need to do this!!!)

  1. Use the image by Matthew Bridges (or select an alternative image). Use the crop tool and resize to 500px x 600px at 150ppi (resolution). Apply 6 different image adjustment layers and mask them off in strips (see examples of student work). Add titles to your strips.  E-mail the file to me as a PNG (not PSD) and keep a copy for yourself.
  2. In your second task I would like you to use Matthew Bridges’ image only. The photo is very grey and it looks foggy. I would like you to improve the image using any of the image adjustment functions that you have learnt about. When you are happy with the improved image e-mail me a PNG version of it (no need to crop the image).
    Create a before and after version of the image.

Student Submissions:

Work by Benan Ü
Work by Benan Ü
Work by Michael T
Work by Michael T
Work by Tristan S
Work by Tristan S
Work by Vlad K
Work by Vlad K
Work by Jo W
Work by Jo W
Work by Justin A
Work by Justin A

Based on photo by hotblack from
Based on photo by hotblack from

Link to all Classes     Class 1     Class 2     Class 3     Class 4     Class 5

Work on Assessments

Today you have a chance to work on your assessments in class and get my feedback on the work.

Assessment 1 – Research Assessment

Assessment 2 – Cert IV PGA – Operational Plan

Presentation by Manager Sangeeta Alex

Operational Plan 2013 – First in-class Presentation by Kangan Mangager


Based on photo by hotblack from
Based on photo by hotblack from

Link to all Classes     Class 1     Class 2     Class 3     Class 4     Class 5


  • Hand in Assessment 1 by 11am
  • Assessment 2 Handout

Complete and Hand in Assessment 1

Your first assessment is due today and I will allow you to double check all the info rmation prior to handing it in. Check your answers with your team member. Make sure that all your details are listed (name and student ID). Upload the assessment on MyKangan.

Assessment 2

Create an operational plan for yourself. Pick a medium term goal for your career or education and list all the things that you need to plan for by answering the questions.

This can be done individually or in teams of 2.
Upload the assessment on MyKangan.

Due Date: 16/7/13

Assessment 2 – Cert IV PGA – Operational Plan

Below is an example of an approach to Assessment 2: Let’s say my overall goal is to learn Adobe Dreamweaver by 30 January 2014.

So, my clear objective would be to able to design a website in Dreamweaver with an interactive menu, a minimum of three linked pages (home, about us, portfolio) and images that upload. I will be able to include HTML, CSS, JavaScript or JQuery and XML elements.

Where am I now might be: my current Dreamweaver skills are very basic. I need to learn how to develop a web page to suit a specific layout. I need to learn how to add and link images, and add meta data to images. I need to be able to get a better overall understanding of the interface, at the moment I feel to intimidated by it.

The resources that I need are: a computer with Adobe Dreamweaver CS 6, the Internet, and an online tutorial site, eg Adobe TV, Digital Arts Online or Noupe.

I hope this gives you a bit of an idea, what is expected. Make it as realistic as you want.

Based on photo by hotblack from
Based on photo by hotblack from

Link to all Classes     Class 1     Class 2     Class 3     Class 4     Class 6


  • Today we will talk about what an organisation or business will look at when recruiting and inducting employees
  • We will have a guest speaker: Rao Diwakar. Assistant Manager of ICT at Kangan Institute
  • Work on Assessment 1
  • Guest Speaker on Thursday: Michael Ball, Manager of SSR at Kangan Institute

Recruiting and Inducting Employees

Finding suitable staff for a business is central for the success and often the survival of a business. The task of having to find the right person falls to a manager responsible for the operational side of a business. At an institute like Kangan it is the role of a department manager to find suitable candidates. Some organisations may have a more centralised approach and get their HR (Human Resources) department to conduct the recruitment.

An organisation needs to first establish what position is available. This will depend on their needs.

Their needs will be written down in form of a Position Description.  A position description will make the task of finding the right person for the job more streamlined. From the position description the recruiter will develop a set of Key Selection Criteria. Key selection criteria are the skills, attributes, knowledge and qualifications essential for satisfying the requirements of the job.

Almost every job vacancy will have a list of Key Selection Criteria attached to it. Applicants who fail to address those in their application will most likely fail at getting the job.

Finding the Right Candidate for a Job... - Photo AdamRiley from
Finding the Right Candidate for a Job… – Photo AdamRiley from

In Class Task

What job or career are you interested in? Do a job search on SEEKCareerOne, GumTree or MyCareer for a job advertisement. Try to find the Key Selection Criteria for that position.

You might to search for a moment and you are likely to only find an excerpt of the criteria, generally the full list is available on request. Bookmark the ad.

Class Discussion

Share the Key Selection Criteria of your job advert with the class. Pick one and describe in your words what it means. Do you think that you would suit that criterion?

Guest Speaker

Rao Diwakar makes operational plans and decisions as part of his work . He is so kind to share some of his knowledge on operational planning, creation of KPIs, recruiting and inducting employees and performance monitoring and management strategies. It is a great opportunity to ask him questions. So, try to get as much information of him and use the time well.

Assessment 1

The rest of class time will be used for you to work on assessment 1. It is due on 4/6. You do not need to make the answers up, you can ask experts and get them to supply you with the answers – it is a research assessment.

Assessment 1

This Thursday

We will have a third and final guest speaker on Thursday (during our EDSS class) to give us an insight into this topic. The guest speaker is Michael Ball, the manager of SSR (Student Support and Recreation). SSR has a different purpose to ICT and it will be very interesting to hear his focus on operational planning.

The three guest speakers should make the completion of the first Assessment a walk in the park.

Based on photo by hotblack from
Based on photo by hotblack from

Link to all Classes     Class 1     Class 2     Class 3


  • We will commence the class by looking at the 5 contingency plan examples out of your own life (task from last class) and comparing them in class.
  • Next you will receive Assessment Task 1.
  • We will have a guest speaker: Sangeeta Alex. Manager of Customer Relations and Student Services

Personal Contingency Plans

Share your five plans with the other students. If in class share all your 5 examples, if online please submit your example as a comment.

Undo is not often an option in the real world... F.Viola
Undo is not often an option in the real world… F.Viola

Assessment 1

This assessment is due in 2 weeks. You do not need to make the answers up, you can ask experts and get them to supply you with the answers – it is a research assessment.

Assessment 1

Guest Speaker

Sangeeta Alex is a Manager at Kangan Institute. She is so kind to share some of her knowledge on how to implement operational plans and how to create KPIs. It is a great opportunity to ask her questions. So, try to get as much information of her and use the time well.

Based on photo by hotblack from
Based on photo by hotblack from

Link to all Classes     Class 1     Class 2     Class 4


In the previous 2 weeks we looked at the terms:

  • Strategic Planning
  • Operational Planning
  • VMB board
  • KPI – Key Performance Indicator

All these terms need to be seen in relation to applying an operational plan.

Today’s class is about contingency planning.

Contingency Planning

Contingency planning is an important part of operational planning. A contingency plan is basically an alternative plan or a ‘Plan B’, when events do not turn out as planned.

You could refer to it as Planning for Disaster by anticipating potential problems, or events that could have a negative impact if not dealt with (by using an alternative plan).

‘Events not turning out as planned’ could mean either an emergency or simply a change of events (leading to a change of plans). Life is really a lot about change, so life is in a sense about contingency plans.

Here are some examples:

  • (Events as planned) You were going to make Sticky Date Pudding for desert at a dinner party > (Emergency or problem) You realise too late that you have forgotten to buy an important ingredient, eg cream > (New or Contingency Plan) Your contingency plan may be to use an alternative or to quickly go to the 7/11 and buy cream at a higher price
  • (Events as planned) You are about to start a group assignment with 2 other students (Emergency or problem)  One students gets very sick and will not be able to meet you in person > (New or Contingency Plan) You decide to collaborate online, using Google or other online conference and sharing tools or You decide to drop that student from the group and approach someone else
  • (Events as planned) Rudi B has 3 children and and his wife is a full-time mother (Emergency or problem)  Rudi loses his job and monthly income. > (New or Contingency Plan) His Income Protection Insurance provides him with an ongoing income for 18 months. He has time to look for a new job.
  • (Events as planned) We are in class at Kangan. It is a beautiful day (Yong is sleeping, Lucine is not on Facebook and Adam is glad that Toni is back in class).  > (Emergency or problem)  The fire alarm rings! (New or Contingency Plan) We follow the Contingency Plan which is the Emergency Plan. We leave the class room, the teacher locks it and we assemble in the car park.
Photo by clarita on morgueFile
Photo by clarita on morgueFile

You see that all these examples are simple and easy to deal with. Each requires a different level of foresight and each emergency or change of events may be dealt with differently.

Contingency Plans are necessary on many levels:

  • Supplies of ingredients for a restaurant – it is worse to run out of an ingredient when someone pays for the food!
  • Anti Terror Laws and Measures are a form of contingency plan.
  • Increase of petrol prices will require transport businesses and suppliers to react (this may be an increase in their fees)
  • A cheaper competitor that undercuts the prices of an established brand and wins customers over will have an impact on the prices of the established brand.

Contingency Task

Think of 5 scenarios for something going wrong or not to plan in your life and write down:

  • the event as planned (eg driving to TAFE)
  • the change of events or emergency (eg the car breaks down)
  • the contingency plan (eg SMS Federico and come by Public Transport)

Keep it simple and have ready for next class. 😉

Here are some simple examples and explanations online:

Example of Contingency Planning for a student

Contingency Plan for Music Video

Based on photo by hotblack from
Based on photo by hotblack from

Link to all Classes     Link to Class 1     Class 3     Class 4

We will start today’s class by thinking about the terminology introduced in class 1 –

on a sheet of paper write your own understanding  of:

  1. Strategic Planning
  2. Operational Planning
  3. VMB board

KPI – Key Performance Indicator

Key Performance Indicators (short: KPIs) are an extremely important measure in successful businesses. We will look at the definition of KPIs, how to create a KPI and look at examples. You will then need to create an example KPI.

Please open the presentation below and follow it in class.

KPI – Presentation

In 6 teams we will look at examples of KPIs used in hospitality and report back to the class.

Examples of KPIs used in restaurants, cafes and similar businesses

Below is a text with examples of KPIs used in restaurants, cafes and similar businesses. Read and write one from each category that you can relate to on a sheet of paper. We will use it in a group discussion.
Source:  (Sourced in August 2012)

Key Performance Indicators for Restaurants, Cafes, Catering, Clubs and Hotels

Remove the guesswork from managing your business by checking the numbers that tell you what’s really happening.
There’s a business saying: ‘if you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it!’ Real, responsive management needs reliable and truthful figures on which decisions can be based. If there are problems, you can take corrective action quickly. If you are having success, you’ll know to do more of what you’re doing! Good figures also give you a wider understanding of your success – sometimes if it’s a quiet month (when your suppliers are telling you that ‘everyone’s quiet!’) you’ll see that some of your KPIs are actually improving (eg sales per head). Well done – it is not all doom and gloom!
Watch several figures from each of the 6 following sections.

1. Staff and Employment KPI’s

Wage Cost % – wage costs as a percentage of sales.
Total Labour Cost % – not just wages but also the other work cover insurance, retirement and superannuation charges and other taxes that apply on your payroll.
Total Labour Hours – how many hours worked in each section. This is useful to compare against sales to measure productivity.
Function Labour charge-out. Caterers usually charge-out service staff at a markup on the cost of the wages paid. Are you achieving a consistent mark-up?
Sick days taken – sometimes a measure of morale and the management skills of your management team.
Labour turnover (number of new staff in any one week or month) Everyone says high staff turnover is ‘part of the territory’ in hospitality. It doesn’t need to be like that, but one way to measure how good (or bad) you are at controlling this is to measure labour turnover. Count the number of positions you have (A), then count the number of people who you have employed during a certain period (B). Divide B by A and you will get a labour turnover figure, sometimes expressed as a percentage. For example if you have 10 staff positions and you have employed 38 people in the last year, your Staff Turnover is 38/10 or 380%!!
Average length of employment – another way to look at your success in keeping staff. Add up the total number of weeks all your people have worked for you and divide this by the total number of staff.
Average hourly pay – divide the total payroll by the number of hours worked by all staff.

Photo by frenchbyte on morgueFile
Photo by frenchbyte on morgueFile – He does not look too happy, maybe he is studying this class?

2. Kitchen Management

Food Cost % can be measured quickly by adding up food purchases for the week and measuring them against your food sales. This is based on the assumption that you are not holding very much stock (as it’s perishable, you need to sell it or throw it out!). You may also do a stock-take regularly to get a more accurate food cost percentage, although the burden of kitchen stocktaking often means it is not done very often.
Total Food Costs – how much was your total food bill? Sometimes a useful figure to show staff who think you are made of money!
Food Costs per head. It can be useful to see every week how much it costs to feed an average customer. If your menu and sales style is consistent, this should also remain much the same. If it starts to go up, you will have to find out what’s happening!
Kitchen Labour % – it’s only fair to measure kitchen productivity by comparing kitchen labour against food sales, not total sales (alcohol and beverage sales may be influenced by other factors).
Kitchen Labour hours – how many hours worked in this section? Compare against sales to measure productivity.
Stock Value – how much food stock are you holding? It should be less than a week’s use, but can slip out if you are storing frozen seafood or Cryovac meat (a packaging method that is supposed to prolong the life of meet).
Best (and worst) selling items – check the weekly sales from your POS or dockets. Did you know what the best sellers were? Map these on the Menu Profitability Analyser.
Kitchen linen costs – the cost of uniforms, aprons and tea-towels can be a shock! How many tea-towels are you using each day? (Have you thought about laundering them yourself?)

3. Front of House and Restaurant Management

Total Sales Per Head – your total sales divided by the number of customers. How does it compare to last week and last month? This may vary between different times of the day .
Number of customers – simple! A good measure of popularity.
Food, Dessert, Beverage Sales per head. These are divided into key areas of choice – main course and starters, desserts, non-alcohol beverages, alcohol and perhaps also side orders (eg breads and salads) and other product sales. It’s the perfect indicator of two things – how much your menu appeals to your customers (do you have all the choices they want, eg the right dessert selection?), and how well your staff are selling. This KPI can be a good basis for a bonus system.
Seating Efficiency – how well your tables are being turned over while still offering high quality customer service. Usually many small things combine to have a large impact – cooking time, seating, service and clearing. The size of tables relative to the average group size will also make a difference.
Basket Analysis – eg how many items do lunch customers buy? What else do morning coffee drinkers order, or red-wine drinkers (mineral water if the servers are awake)? A recent analysis with a client showed that typical diners ordered only 2 items (most ordered nothing after the main course) and many of the lunch customers did not order a beverage. Grab a pile of dockets from a typical day, and look for ordering patterns.
Linen costs – uniforms, aprons etc.
Front of House Labour % – how many hours worked in this section? Compare against sales to measure productivity.
FOH Labour hours – how many hours worked in this section? Compare against sales to measure productivity
Customer satisfaction. This is measured in different ways. Feedback forms, complaints and other methods that are hard to quantify sometimes but worth making an attempt.
Strike Rate – if 500 people came to your club last night and only 100 ate at the bistro, your ‘strike rate’ would be 1 in 5, or 20%. Good enough? Compare with similar businesses and different times.
RevPASH – Revenue per Available Seat Hour. The same idea hotels use to measure Revenue per Available Room. For RevPASH take the total number of ‘seat hours’ and divide total revenue for a period by this number.

4. Bar and Cellar Management

Sales per head. Useful to have them separately for alcohol beverages and non-alcohol (juices, mineral waters, soft-drinks and coffee etc). It’s the perfect indicator of two things – how much your beverage and wine appeals to your customers and how well your staff is selling. This KPI can be a good basis for a sales bonus system.
Gross Profit on sales – the difference between what you sold and what it cost you. The sales mix can influence this heavily. If you are selling two bottles for the same price, but one costs you $5 to buy and one costs you $7 to buy, you should try to maximise the sales of the one with the highest dollar profit.
Average Profit % on Sales – useful to see if your sales are holding steady, although ultimately the actual Gross Profit (real money) will matter the most.
Stock Value – how much cash is locked up in the value of your cellar? Tens and even hundreds of thousands of dollars can be tied up in cellar stock and you don’t realise it! It’s worth checking with your suppliers and seeing how much you can order ‘just in time’. This is where retail business models are useful to compare, because unlike food stock, these supplies are not perishable, which can lead to a temptation to hoard. Also, the romance of wine lists and ‘special deals’ can lead to stock blow-outs! Weekly stocktakes are essential for proper management.
Stock turnover – how fast is your cellar stock selling? If you are carrying wine stock worth $50,000 and the value (not sales) of what you sell each week is only $10,000, it’s taking 5 weeks to turn over your stock. That’s too long! An accurate figure here will be based on regular stocktakes and accurate sales information.
Carrying cost of stock – what is the cost of financing this $50,000 of stock? Take the current interest rate for borrowing money, apply it to your stock value, and divide by 52 to get a weekly figure. If stock is valued at $50,000 and interest rate is 8%, annual cost of financing the stock is $4000 or $77 per week.
Sales / stocktake discrepancies. Alcohol means security problems, and keeping an eye on ‘shrinkage’, staff drinks and stealing is a constant problem. As an essential KPI, measure the difference between what you used (from comparing two stocktakes) and what your POS system says you sold. You often need to find our why they aren’t the same!

Photo by ariadna on morgueFile
Photo by ariadna on morgueFile

5. Sales and Marketing plus Function Management

Number of customers – simple! A good measure of popularity.
Visits by your top 100 or 200 customers – they provide a huge proportion of your sales! Track their frequency and spending – these people are gold!
Sales per Head – across all areas
Marketing and advertising costs – the total value of what you spend, always trying to measure it against the response you get. A difficult one to measure, but worth investigating.
Response rates – how many people responded to different campaigns and what effect did this have on profit?
Press Mentions – keeping your eyes open for favourable mentions.
Bookings – in the current week and month and coming up. Also in peak times, eg Christmas.
Function Inquiries – number of inquiries about large bookings and functions, especially if you have undertaken a campaign to promote them.
Sales inquiry conversion rate – the number of inquiries that turn into actual sales. If 50 people asked for information about your function packages and this resulted in 10 firm bookings, this would be a conversion rate of 1/5 or 20%. You would want to look at why so few people were ‘converted’ – was it the quality of the promotional material, skill of the sales staff, pricing or make-up of your function menus and facilities?

6. Management of Finance and Administration

Cash position at bank – how much do you have available after reconciling your cheque book?
Stocktake discrepancies – a measure of the efficiency of each department, but also of the administrative systems in place. They need to be simple and easy for line staff to fill in, and the results should be made known quickly if they are to have an impact.
Total accounts due – how much do you owe?
Total accounts payable – not usually a problem in restaurants and pubs, but needs careful management if you have accounts, eg large restaurants.
Return on Investment – the profit your business makes can be measured as a percentage return on the amount you have invested in it (see the Balance Sheet). Is it sufficient?
Taxes owed – most of these taxes are not paid at the time they are collected. Hence the need to know how much is owed at any one time so it is not ‘spent’.
Sales & costs – actual figures compared to what you budgeted for the period. You will want to see real dollar figures and percentages.
Administration labour costs. This is often begrudged in hospitality businesses and seen as ‘not productive’. But strong and skilful administrative support will be essential to manage the KPIs listed above!
Computer and technology efficiency – how much down-time for your computer system? How accurate is the POS system? How many of your staff know how to use the equipment they use each day, eg telephones – can everyone transfer a call properly?

Class Task

Please complete the comprehension task below by answering the questions!

Class 02 – Comprehension – Task1

Based on photo by hotblack from
Based on photo by hotblack from

Link to all Classes     Class 2     Class 3     Class 4

Welcome to your first class of ‘Implement an Operational Plan’.

Please open the presentation below and follow it in class.

Class 1 – Cert IV in PGA – Overview

Comparing Operational and Strategic Planning

In-class discussion on what the words strategic and operational imply:

Strategic: theory, plan, ideas

Operational: practical, the actual doing of it

Looking at strategic and operational planning in the context of:

  • Chess:  the strategy relates to the moves ahead, the player is thinking about a number of combinations. The player will try to determine and anticipate the opponent’s moves, while thinking through a number of moves that would give the player an advantage.
  • Military: the general may think about a strategy of attack, while on a lower level of the hierarchy, the Captain may think about how to implement the orders and how to make it happen.
    This may include thw day to day running of an army, the resource management, the movement of the troops.

Strategic and Operational Planning for an Institute

In teams Use Kangan Institute as an example and list aspects that relate to planning on a strategic level and planning related to the operational level of a business.

Discuss your findings.

View the VMB (Visual Management Board) used by ICT

Students will view the VMB used by ICT and understand how ICT manages the strategic vision of the institute and translates it to an operational level.

If you missed this class you will need to check with your colleagues and teacher on what the VMB was about.

Link to Class 6     Class 5    Class 4      Class 1

Today’s content:

  • Handout and discussion of Assessment 2 – Logo Design
  • Time to work on Assessment 2

Assessment 2

Design 2 Logo concepts for a business called UCV (United Creative Victoria) an imaginary organisation for Designers of different disciplines of Victoria.

Due Date

22/April 2013 – 5:30pm

Please read all the instructions carefully before completing the assessment task.


Design 2 Logo concepts for a business called UCV (United Creative Victoria) an imaginary organisation for Designers of different disciplines of Victoria.UCV will be located in Victoria Street, Carlton and will hold events for Graphic Design, Industrial Design, Interior Design, Fashion Design and showcase some local Craft, from jewellery to small artefacts. UCV has a global outlook and would like a design for their logo that is modern and timeless. They would like you to base your concepts on Calibri or Bauhaus 93. Combine the type with a symbol.


  1. Write a list of information about your client. What do you know about UCV?
  2. Brainstorm the terms: global outlook, modern and timeless. What do they mean? How could that be described visually? Collect your ideas in form of a mindmap or brainstorm.
  3. Sketch concepts for your logo on a minimum of 6 A4 pages (3 A4 pages per typeface). Draw symbols and icons that you could use as inside shapes to cut out of the main letter shapes. Scan your pages.
  4. Select your strongest ideas of your sketches and develop them in Adobe Illustrator. Have 3 versions per concept. Present each concept on an A4 pages (a page for each typeface).

Upload the file on MyKangan. Thank you!


Link to Class 5         Class 4       Class 3      Class 1

Menu of Yong Green Food , Fitzroy, MelbournePhoto: F. Viola
Menu of Yong Green Food , Fitzroy, Melbourne
Photo: F. Viola

Today’s content:

  • Handout and discussion of Assessment 1 – Typographic Collection
  • Time to work on Assessment 1

Assessment 1

You will need to produce a typographic  collection in digital format.

Due Date

15/April 2013 – 5:30pm


The format can be a PowerPoint presentation, a Word document (saved as a PDF), an interactive PDF created in Adobe Acrobat or InDesign or a Website (created from HTML coding, Adobe DreamWeaver or in Adobe Bridge).

You will also need to supply a separate folder by name fonts with 8 font files.

Upload the file on MyKangan. This link will go active by Easter Monday.


The content for your collection needs to include digital documentation (digital photographs, scans, font files and Illustrator-based EPS).

  • 5 photographs of different display types – retails signs
    A paragraph of text describing two or more of your choices. Describe the purpose and what appealed to you (colour, shape, legibility)! Who might be the target audience?
  • 5 images of interesting layouts (photos, scans, downloads). These could be from magazine, book covers, restaurant or cafe menus, or websites (screen shots of the webpage that appeals to you or of home page).
    A paragraph of text describing two or more of your choices. Describe the purpose and what appealed to you (colour, shape, legibility)! Who might be the target audience?
  • 5 photographs of product labels (this may include Ladies’ Cosmetics brands, in the higher price bracket and prestigious, Sport clothing brand for ball sports, to be used on shirts, pants, socks and shoes, Brand of healthy food products from sustainable ethical plantations with a fair trade commitment, bottle labels on wine, French champagne, boutique beer, etc)
    A paragraph of text describing two or more of your choices. Describe the purpose and what appealed to you (colour, shape, legibility)! Who might be the target audience?
  • 5 logos (digital format, GIF, JPEG, PNG, EPS, they can be found online or scans from books)
    A paragraph of text describing two or more of your choices. Describe the purpose and what appealed to you (colour, shape, legibility)! Who might be the target audience?
  • 5 film titles according to genre (scans or photos of movie posters, downloaded files from the internet), from these genres:
    • Wild West movie title
    • Sci-Fi movie or book title
    • Film Noir film title
    • Zombie titles
  • 5 type choice for themes (scans or photos of movie posters, downloaded files from the internet)
    • for a Wedding Day or Wedding Invite
    • for Children’s books, toys, games
  • A list of 8 fonts in the font and attached Font Files in a separate folder by the name fonts (chose your fonts on
    • 2 Sans Serif Fonts
    • 2 Serif Fonts
    • 2 Fonts that you really like
    • 2 good display fonts for signage

Tips for Assessment

Try some of the links supplied in Links for Learning and Links to Inspire You, particularly Dzine Blog and search for logo designs there. You might want to look at Mashable or Communication Arts and use either of their search boxes.

Use a program that you feel comfortable with.

Advertisement on Banner, Brunswick, MelbournePhoto: F. Viola
Advertisement on Banner, Brunswick, Melbourne
Photo: F. Viola

How to Install a Font on Your Computer

Italian movie poster found on
Italian movie poster found on

Installing fonts has been easy with Macs in the past, and has become very user-friendly with Windows 7 as well. If you use earlier versions of Windows you should be able to drag and drop (the destination folder is called Fonts and is located on the C-drive: C:\Windows\Fonts).

I recommend to get free fonts from Visit this tutorial to learn how to Install Fonts in Mac OS X  and how to Install Fonts in Windows 7.