All these terms need to be seen in relation to applying an operational plan.
Today’s class is about contingency planning.
Contingency planning is an important part of operational planning. A contingency plan is basically an alternative plan or a ‘Plan B’, when events do not turn out as planned.
You could refer to it as Planning for Disaster by anticipating potential problems, or events that could have a negative impact if not dealt with (by using an alternative plan).
‘Events not turning out as planned’ could mean either an emergency or simply a change of events (leading to a change of plans). Life is really a lot about change, so life is in a sense about contingency plans.
Here are some examples:
(Events as planned) You were going to make Sticky Date Pudding for desert at a dinner party> (Emergency or problem) You realise too late that you have forgotten to buy an important ingredient, eg cream> (New or Contingency Plan) Your contingency plan may be to use an alternative or to quickly go to the 7/11 and buy cream at a higher price
(Events as planned) You are about to start a group assignment with 2 other students> (Emergency or problem) One students gets very sick and will not be able to meet you in person> (New or Contingency Plan) You decide to collaborate online, using Google or other online conference and sharing tools or You decide to drop that student from the group and approach someone else
(Events as planned) Rudi B has 3 children and and his wife is a full-time mother> (Emergency or problem)Rudi loses his job and monthly income. >(New or Contingency Plan)His Income Protection Insurance provides him with an ongoing income for 18 months. He has time to look for a new job.
(Events as planned) We are in class at Kangan. It is a beautiful day (Yong is sleeping, Lucine is not on Facebook and Adam is glad that Toni is back in class). >(Emergency or problem) The fire alarm rings! > (New or Contingency Plan) We follow the Contingency Plan which is the Emergency Plan. We leave the class room, the teacher locks it and we assemble in the car park.
You see that all these examples are simple and easy to deal with. Each requires a different level of foresight and each emergency or change of events may be dealt with differently.
Contingency Plans are necessary on many levels:
Supplies of ingredients for a restaurant – it is worse to run out of an ingredient when someone pays for the food!
Anti Terror Laws and Measures are a form of contingency plan.
Increase of petrol prices will require transport businesses and suppliers to react (this may be an increase in their fees)
A cheaper competitor that undercuts the prices of an established brand and wins customers over will have an impact on the prices of the established brand.
Think of 5 scenarios for something going wrong or not to plan in your life and write down:
the event as planned (eg driving to TAFE)
the change of events or emergency (eg the car breaks down)
the contingency plan (eg SMS Federico and come by Public Transport)
Keep it simple and have ready for next class. 😉
Here are some simple examples and explanations online:
We will start today’s class by thinking about the terminology introduced in class 1 –
on a sheet of paper write your own understanding of:
KPI – Key Performance Indicator
Key Performance Indicators (short: KPIs) are an extremely important measure in successful businesses. We will look at the definition of KPIs, how to create a KPI and look at examples. You will then need to create an example KPI.
Please open the presentation below and follow it in class.
In 6 teams we will look at examples of KPIs used in hospitality and report back to the class.
Examples of KPIs used in restaurants, cafes and similar businesses
Below is a text with examples of KPIs used in restaurants, cafes and similar businesses. Read and write one from each category that you can relate to on a sheet of paper. We will use it in a group discussion.
Source: http://www.profitablehospitality.com/public/88.cfm (Sourced in August 2012)
Key Performance Indicators for Restaurants, Cafes, Catering, Clubs and Hotels
Remove the guesswork from managing your business by checking the numbers that tell you what’s really happening.
There’s a business saying: ‘if you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it!’ Real, responsive management needs reliable and truthful figures on which decisions can be based. If there are problems, you can take corrective action quickly. If you are having success, you’ll know to do more of what you’re doing! Good figures also give you a wider understanding of your success – sometimes if it’s a quiet month (when your suppliers are telling you that ‘everyone’s quiet!’) you’ll see that some of your KPIs are actually improving (eg sales per head). Well done – it is not all doom and gloom!
Watch several figures from each of the 6 following sections.
1. Staff and Employment KPI’s
Wage Cost % – wage costs as a percentage of sales.
Total Labour Cost % – not just wages but also the other work cover insurance, retirement and superannuation charges and other taxes that apply on your payroll.
Total Labour Hours – how many hours worked in each section. This is useful to compare against sales to measure productivity.
Function Labour charge-out. Caterers usually charge-out service staff at a markup on the cost of the wages paid. Are you achieving a consistent mark-up?
Sick days taken – sometimes a measure of morale and the management skills of your management team.
Labour turnover (number of new staff in any one week or month) Everyone says high staff turnover is ‘part of the territory’ in hospitality. It doesn’t need to be like that, but one way to measure how good (or bad) you are at controlling this is to measure labour turnover. Count the number of positions you have (A), then count the number of people who you have employed during a certain period (B). Divide B by A and you will get a labour turnover figure, sometimes expressed as a percentage. For example if you have 10 staff positions and you have employed 38 people in the last year, your Staff Turnover is 38/10 or 380%!!
Average length of employment – another way to look at your success in keeping staff. Add up the total number of weeks all your people have worked for you and divide this by the total number of staff.
Average hourly pay – divide the total payroll by the number of hours worked by all staff.
2. Kitchen Management
Food Cost % can be measured quickly by adding up food purchases for the week and measuring them against your food sales. This is based on the assumption that you are not holding very much stock (as it’s perishable, you need to sell it or throw it out!). You may also do a stock-take regularly to get a more accurate food cost percentage, although the burden of kitchen stocktaking often means it is not done very often.
Total Food Costs – how much was your total food bill? Sometimes a useful figure to show staff who think you are made of money!
Food Costs per head. It can be useful to see every week how much it costs to feed an average customer. If your menu and sales style is consistent, this should also remain much the same. If it starts to go up, you will have to find out what’s happening!
Kitchen Labour % – it’s only fair to measure kitchen productivity by comparing kitchen labour against food sales, not total sales (alcohol and beverage sales may be influenced by other factors).
Kitchen Labour hours – how many hours worked in this section? Compare against sales to measure productivity.
Stock Value – how much food stock are you holding? It should be less than a week’s use, but can slip out if you are storing frozen seafood or Cryovac meat (a packaging method that is supposed to prolong the life of meet).
Best (and worst) selling items – check the weekly sales from your POS or dockets. Did you know what the best sellers were? Map these on the Menu Profitability Analyser.
Kitchen linen costs – the cost of uniforms, aprons and tea-towels can be a shock! How many tea-towels are you using each day? (Have you thought about laundering them yourself?)
3. Front of House and Restaurant Management
Total Sales Per Head – your total sales divided by the number of customers. How does it compare to last week and last month? This may vary between different times of the day .
Number of customers – simple! A good measure of popularity.
Food, Dessert, Beverage Sales per head. These are divided into key areas of choice – main course and starters, desserts, non-alcohol beverages, alcohol and perhaps also side orders (eg breads and salads) and other product sales. It’s the perfect indicator of two things – how much your menu appeals to your customers (do you have all the choices they want, eg the right dessert selection?), and how well your staff are selling. This KPI can be a good basis for a bonus system.
Seating Efficiency – how well your tables are being turned over while still offering high quality customer service. Usually many small things combine to have a large impact – cooking time, seating, service and clearing. The size of tables relative to the average group size will also make a difference.
Basket Analysis – eg how many items do lunch customers buy? What else do morning coffee drinkers order, or red-wine drinkers (mineral water if the servers are awake)? A recent analysis with a client showed that typical diners ordered only 2 items (most ordered nothing after the main course) and many of the lunch customers did not order a beverage. Grab a pile of dockets from a typical day, and look for ordering patterns.
Linen costs – uniforms, aprons etc.
Front of House Labour % – how many hours worked in this section? Compare against sales to measure productivity.
FOH Labour hours – how many hours worked in this section? Compare against sales to measure productivity
Customer satisfaction. This is measured in different ways. Feedback forms, complaints and other methods that are hard to quantify sometimes but worth making an attempt.
Strike Rate – if 500 people came to your club last night and only 100 ate at the bistro, your ‘strike rate’ would be 1 in 5, or 20%. Good enough? Compare with similar businesses and different times.
RevPASH – Revenue per Available Seat Hour. The same idea hotels use to measure Revenue per Available Room. For RevPASH take the total number of ‘seat hours’ and divide total revenue for a period by this number.
4. Bar and Cellar Management
Sales per head. Useful to have them separately for alcohol beverages and non-alcohol (juices, mineral waters, soft-drinks and coffee etc). It’s the perfect indicator of two things – how much your beverage and wine appeals to your customers and how well your staff is selling. This KPI can be a good basis for a sales bonus system.
Gross Profit on sales – the difference between what you sold and what it cost you. The sales mix can influence this heavily. If you are selling two bottles for the same price, but one costs you $5 to buy and one costs you $7 to buy, you should try to maximise the sales of the one with the highest dollar profit.
Average Profit % on Sales – useful to see if your sales are holding steady, although ultimately the actual Gross Profit (real money) will matter the most.
Stock Value – how much cash is locked up in the value of your cellar? Tens and even hundreds of thousands of dollars can be tied up in cellar stock and you don’t realise it! It’s worth checking with your suppliers and seeing how much you can order ‘just in time’. This is where retail business models are useful to compare, because unlike food stock, these supplies are not perishable, which can lead to a temptation to hoard. Also, the romance of wine lists and ‘special deals’ can lead to stock blow-outs! Weekly stocktakes are essential for proper management.
Stock turnover – how fast is your cellar stock selling? If you are carrying wine stock worth $50,000 and the value (not sales) of what you sell each week is only $10,000, it’s taking 5 weeks to turn over your stock. That’s too long! An accurate figure here will be based on regular stocktakes and accurate sales information.
Carrying cost of stock – what is the cost of financing this $50,000 of stock? Take the current interest rate for borrowing money, apply it to your stock value, and divide by 52 to get a weekly figure. If stock is valued at $50,000 and interest rate is 8%, annual cost of financing the stock is $4000 or $77 per week.
Sales / stocktake discrepancies. Alcohol means security problems, and keeping an eye on ‘shrinkage’, staff drinks and stealing is a constant problem. As an essential KPI, measure the difference between what you used (from comparing two stocktakes) and what your POS system says you sold. You often need to find our why they aren’t the same!
5. Sales and Marketing plus Function Management
Number of customers – simple! A good measure of popularity.
Visits by your top 100 or 200 customers – they provide a huge proportion of your sales! Track their frequency and spending – these people are gold!
Sales per Head – across all areas
Marketing and advertising costs – the total value of what you spend, always trying to measure it against the response you get. A difficult one to measure, but worth investigating.
Response rates – how many people responded to different campaigns and what effect did this have on profit?
Press Mentions – keeping your eyes open for favourable mentions.
Bookings – in the current week and month and coming up. Also in peak times, eg Christmas.
Function Inquiries – number of inquiries about large bookings and functions, especially if you have undertaken a campaign to promote them.
Sales inquiry conversion rate – the number of inquiries that turn into actual sales. If 50 people asked for information about your function packages and this resulted in 10 firm bookings, this would be a conversion rate of 1/5 or 20%. You would want to look at why so few people were ‘converted’ – was it the quality of the promotional material, skill of the sales staff, pricing or make-up of your function menus and facilities?
6. Management of Finance and Administration
Cash position at bank – how much do you have available after reconciling your cheque book?
Stocktake discrepancies – a measure of the efficiency of each department, but also of the administrative systems in place. They need to be simple and easy for line staff to fill in, and the results should be made known quickly if they are to have an impact.
Total accounts due – how much do you owe?
Total accounts payable – not usually a problem in restaurants and pubs, but needs careful management if you have accounts, eg large restaurants.
Return on Investment – the profit your business makes can be measured as a percentage return on the amount you have invested in it (see the Balance Sheet). Is it sufficient?
Taxes owed – most of these taxes are not paid at the time they are collected. Hence the need to know how much is owed at any one time so it is not ‘spent’.
Sales & costs – actual figures compared to what you budgeted for the period. You will want to see real dollar figures and percentages.
Administration labour costs. This is often begrudged in hospitality businesses and seen as ‘not productive’. But strong and skilful administrative support will be essential to manage the KPIs listed above!
Computer and technology efficiency – how much down-time for your computer system? How accurate is the POS system? How many of your staff know how to use the equipment they use each day, eg telephones – can everyone transfer a call properly?
Please complete the comprehension task below by answering the questions!
In-class discussion on what the words strategic and operational imply:
Strategic: theory, plan, ideas
Operational: practical, the actual doing of it
Looking at strategic and operational planning in the context of:
Chess: the strategy relates to the moves ahead, the player is thinking about a number of combinations. The player will try to determine and anticipate the opponent’s moves, while thinking through a number of moves that would give the player an advantage.
Military: the general may think about astrategy of attack, while on a lower level of the hierarchy, the Captain may think about how to implement the orders and how to make it happen.
This may include thw day to day running of an army, the resource management, the movement of the troops.
Strategic and Operational Planning for an Institute
In teams Use Kangan Institute as an example and list aspects that relate to planning on a strategic level and planning related to the operational level of a business.
Discuss your findings.
View the VMB (Visual Management Board) used by ICT
Students will view the VMB used by ICT and understand how ICT manages the strategic vision of the institute and translates it to an operational level.
If you missed this class you will need to check with your colleagues and teacher on what the VMB was about.
It is an exciting time to commence something new, so wear the badge Absolute Beginner with pride and get ready for a love affair with one of the best software packages of our time- welcome to Photoshop.
Suddenlylifebrokeout in warmcolors again, so young and beautiful that a lot of people couldn’t stand to look at it.
Quote from the film Absolute Beginners
We will work with Photoshop CS5 on a Mac. Prerequisites: 10 photos of you and 10 photos of a background saved onto your USB and in class (the excuse of the forgotten USB at home is lame) 😉
Today we will look at:
The CS5 Workspace (overview)
Differences between the Mac keyboard and Windows keyboard
Ways to open an image
Use of Hue/Saturation function (Image adjustment)
Perform a task
Feel free to ask questions throughout class and to slow me down at any time. It is important that you view the instructions on the overhead first and then try them out yourself.
The CS5 Workspace (overview)
Please open this Link –CS5 Overview– of a 10 page PDF file (from Adobe Systems Incorporated 2010) in a new window or simply follow instructions in class.
On your screen find the application bar, the menu bar, the options bar, the document window, the tools panel as well as the other panels or palettes.
Activity: Click on Window in the menu bar. (Here are all the panels and palettes that you can activate or deactivate.) Click on Navigator and see the palette becoming active. Next drag the Navigator palette to the very left of the workspace or document window. Do the same with the Character Palette (this one is a bit harder to find and I leave it up to you to figure it out).
Next select New Workspace from the workspace switcher menu, name your workspace and tick the 2 boxes.
You have just created a new workspace for yourself. To get back to the standard workspace layout select Reset Essentials from the workspace switcher menu. Changing the workspace to suit your need can speed up your work and is more fun.
Differences between the Mac keyboard and Windows keyboard
These are the two main differences:
Ctrl (Win) = command (Mac)
Alt (Win) = option (Mac)
Ways to open an image
First ensure that you use a good folder structure. Save your 20 or so images from your USB onto the PC that you are working on into a folder with a short, yet descriptive name, eg images.
Select File>Open – find your images folder and select the image that you want to open. Photoshop will open the image at the image pixel size and at the resolution of the file.
Open the images folder and have Photoshop open and accessible. Now drag the image into the Photoshop window.
Create a New Document in Photoshop and choose File>Place. Next place the image into the document.
There are other options, such as dragging an image directly from a webpage into the Photoshop window or selecting File>Open As Smart Object. Photoshop is a very versatile software package. The most important is to know a way that keeps the resolution high.
Below is an screen shot of the Selection drop menu with annotations:
The Rectangular Marquee Tool (Short cut M) – This tool draws square (with the help of Shift) and rectangular selections (freehand). It is important to understand that you are actually not drawing as such, you are simply creating a selection and will be able to do something to that selection only and only on the current layer. Drag the image below into your Photoshop workspace and select a rectangular shapes. Press Ctrl + U and change the colour settings – just play with it. Keep the file active.
The Elliptical Marquee Tool (Short cut M) – This tool draws circlular selections (with the help of Shift) and elliptical selections (freehand). You can draw the ellipse or circle commencing from the centre by holding Alt (option for Mac) while you draw your selection. Visit this tutorial on PhotoshopEssentials.com to see a good example on how to use the Elliptical Marquee Tool.
For this class select the red cylinder and change the colour as per instruction above.
The Lasso Tool (Short cut L). Basically you draw your selection freehand. It is an early Photoshop tool and has some good uses still (like creating a quick shadow underneath a vehicle with the help of Gaussian Blur). It requires a high level of mouse skills. Try to select the handshake with the Lasso tool and change the colour. Visit this tutorial on PhotoshopEssentials.com to see one good use of the Lasso Tool.
Polygonal Lasso Tool (Short cut L). You draw your selection by dropping points. It is an advanced version of the basic Lasso tool and can be very useful. It requires practice. Try the tutorial from PhotoshopEssentials.com: Polygonal Lasso Tool.
Magnetic Lasso Tool (Short cut L). You draw your selection by clicking once to select the outline of your object and then you simply follow along the outline and the tool does the rest for you. If a mistake occurs use Backspace to go back one step. It requires practice. Try the tutorial from PhotoshopEssentials.com: Magnetic Lasso Tool.
Magic Wand Tool (Short cut W). You make your selection by clicking in the field of what you want to select (eg inside the suit). The Magic Wand selects pixels based on tone and colour. You can change your selection criteria, for example by increasing tolerance your selection will be wider and less affected by tonal variations in the picture. That will result in a larger selection. If you bring the tolerance down it will result in a smaller selection, which means that changes in tone or colour will affect your selection earlier.
Try the tutorial from PhotoshopEssentials.com: Magic Wand Tool.
Quick Selection Tool (Short cut W). This tool is extremely useful as a selection tool. It is similar to the Magic Wand, but it is more advanced and user friendly. You make your selection by clicking in the field of what you want to select (eg inside the suit). The Quick Selection Tool selects pixels based on tone and colour, but it also has the ability to detect similar textures in an image. As a result it is better at detecting the edges of an object.
You can change your selection criteria by changing the size of your brush tip: increasing it will widen your selection and decreasing it will narrow your selection. For a more in detail description please look at this informative tutorial at PhotoshopEssentials.com: Quick Selection Tool.
How to add to or subtract from a selection Hold the shift key to add to an existing selection. Hold the Alt key to subtract from a selection. You will need to hold the key while adding or subtracting.
Use of Hue/Saturation function (Image adjustment)
This is a very quick intro to this function: Press Ctrl + U. 3 sliders allow you to change either the hue (the exact colour), the saturation (the amount of colour) and the lightness (the tone, lightness and darkness). You can also tick colorize to get a nice retro effect, it makes your selection monochromatic.
We will cover this in more detail in the next class. We basically will just have a look at the layers to get a broad understanding in class.
Perform a task – Important
Use the photos that you prepared for this class or simply copy the image of the gorgeous Tammi Terrell and Marvin Gaye below from the provided link and use it to apply your understanding of the Selection Tools. Select various parts using the different tools. Make sure to keep a copy of your final file in JPEG format and upload to MyKangan next week.
Illustration by Jessie Ford, found on DzineBlog.com
Photomontage: Amir Ebrahim Photography
I Want You – Emily Strange, The lovable Emily Strange came to life in 1991, designed by Nathan Carrico for Santa Cruz Skateboards. She is referred to as a counterculture icon. I would just call her a sceptic. Image found at: Kollectable Kaos
Custom Shapes and Custom Shape Icon
Jenga, photo courtesy of: Design-Crit.com
Vista Lighting Effect – Courtesy of: Tutorial9
He loves OHS! – Photo by Karpati Gabor on morgueFile
Luminescent Lines – Courtesy of: PSDLearning
Image from morgueFile by lemai13
The gentle curve of the river and the light green tones of the grass give this image a calming feel. The montains and the clouds have a less calming effect. Image: courtesy of Icon Photography School – http://www.photographyicon.com/line/
Text-based Table of Content – Very Graphic and Black and White- found at: Smashing Magazine (click image for inspiring article on table of content design)
Found at Inc.com
Colourful Table of Content – Ribbons in Primary Colours – found at: LifeBlue.com
Examples of Output and Display for web-content. Image: live.surveyshack.com
Vertical lines of a dark fence, image courtesy of p.ic – Photo Internet Collection – www.photoic.wordpress.com, photographer: Federico Viola
Work by Justin Anderson
Light Streaks – Courtesy of: PhotoshopEssentials
This is a template for a business website found at TemplateMonster. It is interesting in the sense that it breaks up the main image as part of the navigation. The sound it comes with is annoying.
Massive Attack – The Essential Mix
Based on a photo by delboysafa from morgueFile.com
Study – Lines and Grace Kelly – by Federico Viola photo: courtesy of GettingCheeky.com and curved lines wallpaper: courtesy of FreeFever.com
From ‘Henri’s Walk to Paris’ 1962 – children’s book by Saul Bass Found at: Brainpickings.org
Colours, Numbers and Boxes – very happy and alive, personally I do not like the distortion of the word content – found at: Flickr
Photo by frenchbyte on morgueFile
The swirls in the image are made up of numerous lines. Courtesy of: www.openprocessing.org
Based on photo by dhester from morgueFile.com
Screenshot from What’s Your Story by Joyce Hostyn
Layers in Photoshop are like a Collage of images stuck on top of each other…
Experimental Photomontage by Robert Heinecken
Multimedia Production Cycle – This image is under the Creative Common Agreement, you can use it but will need to reference this site: www.classoffederico.wordpress.com
Swiss travel poster from 1934 by Herbert Matter – Source: http://swisstype.wordpress.com/work/
Illustration: Tavis Coburn – Illustration for for an article predicting trends in Apple’s mobile strategy. Found on: TavisCoburn.com
Free Transform and Ctrl – I am loving it!!!
Photo by clarita on morgueFile
Photo by DTL on morgueFiles
Table of Content from Textbook – This design lends itself to an interactive use – found at: Smashing Magazine (click image for inspiring article on table of content design)
Poppies – Vector art Federico Viola based on photo by hotblack from morgueFile
Photo by ariadna on morgueFile
Fruity Design – This is great for a menu, very appetizing thumbnails – found at: WeddingPhotography.com
Italian movie poster found on Abduzeedo.com
The Face by drfranken found on ChromoArt.de
Screenshot of Endless Alphabet 2, courtesy of AppsPlayground.com
Illustration: Jamie McKelvie – Art Brut Record
Uncle Sam Wants You, WWI Propaganda Poster for US Army recruits, Design by James Montgomery Flagg, 1916, image found at: Live Auctioneers